Saturday, October 31, 2009

Bloom Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information.

Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here.

1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
2. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate,
3. Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
4. Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
5. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write.
6. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.

Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in education settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies.


Skills Demonstrated


* observation and recall of information
* knowledge of dates, events, places
* knowledge of major ideas
* mastery of subject matter
* Question Cues:
list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.


* understanding information
* grasp meaning
* translate knowledge into new context
* interpret facts, compare, contrast
* order, group, infer causes
* predict consequences
* Question Cues:
summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend


* use information
* use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
* solve problems using required skills or knowledge
* Questions Cues:
apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover


* seeing patterns
* organization of parts
* recognition of hidden meanings
* identification of components
* Question Cues:
analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer


* use old ideas to create new ones
* generalize from given facts
* relate knowledge from several areas
* predict, draw conclusions
* Question Cues:
combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite


* compare and discriminate between ideas
* assess value of theories, presentations
* make choice based on reasoned argument
* verify value of evidence
* recognize subjectivity
* Question Cues:
assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize


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